Marcus Tullius Cicero: Tusculanae Disputationes [Tusculan Disputations] (1480 words)

Cicero composed his Tusculanae Disputationes, usually translated and referred to as Disputations at Tusculum or Tusculan Disputations (or simply Tusculans) and abbreviated as Tusc. or TD, in the late summer and early autumn of 45 (BCE). The five books of the dialogue purport to record five days of philosophical discussion at his country-villa in Tusculum, a city in the Alban mountains southwest of Rome, near today’s Frascati, that rich Romans used as a retreat from the capital. Each of the books is dedicated to a key theme in philosophical ethics: death, pain, distress, mental disturbances more generally, and virtue. While it is impossible to fix the dramatic date with precision – the only …

Gildenhard, Ingo. "Tusculanae Disputationes". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 25 February 2011
[, accessed 26 October 2016.]