“Philippics” (or Latin Philippica) is the label given to fourteen speeches composed by the Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero between September 44 and April 43 BCE, during a period of constitutional crisis in Late Republican Rome. All the speeches contain some degree of personal attack upon Mark Antony, who was attempting to establish himself as the dominant political figure following Caesar’s assassination in March 44. This confrontational aspect of the speeches, as well as their political context, led Cicero to compare them with the fiery orations of the same name delivered by Demosthenes, the fourth century BCE Athenian statesman who denounced the ambitions of Philip of Macedon (see Cicero

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Hall, Jonathan C. R. . "Philippicae Orationes". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 17 August 2008
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=20503, accessed 02 December 2015.]